a) free order logic
b) fast order logic
c) false order logic
d) first-order logic

Answer: d

Many formal verification techniques are used and these are classified based on the logic employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first-order logic, and higher-order logic. The FOL is the abbreviated form of the first-order logic which includes the quantification.

2. What is HOL?

a) higher-order logic
b) higher-order last
c) highly organized logic
d) higher-order less

Answer: a

The formal verification techniques are classified based on the logic employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first-order logic, and higher-order logic. The HOL is the abbreviation of the higher-order logic in which the proofs are automated and manually done with some proof support.

3. What is BDD?

a) boolean decision diagram
b) binary decision diagrams
c) binary decision device
d) binary device diagram

Answer: b

The binary decision diagram is a kind of data structure that is used to represent the Boolean function.

4. Which formal verification technique consists of a Boolean formula?

a) HOL
b) FOL
c) Propositional logic
d) Both HOL and FOL

Answer: c

The propositional logic technique is having the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in propositional logic are the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the binary decision diagrams which are also known as BDD.

5. Which of the following is also known as an equivalence checker?

a) BDD
b) FOL
c) Tautology checker
d) HOL

Answer: c

The propositional logic technique consists of the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in this type of logic are the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the BDD or the binary decision diagrams.

6. Which of the following is possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol?

a) EMC
b) HOL
c) BDD
d) FOL

Answer: c

The model checking was developed using the binary decision diagram and the BDD and it was possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol.

7. Which of the following is a popular system for model checking?

a) HOL
b) FOL
c) BDD
d) EMC

Answer: d

The EMC system is developed by Clark and it describes the CTL formulas, which is the computational tree logic.

8. What is CTL?

a) computational tree logic
b) code tree logic
c) CPU tree logic
d) computer tree logic

Answer: a

The EMC-system is a popular system for model checking which is developed by Clark that describes the CTL formulas, which is also known as computational tree logic. The CTL consists of two parts, a path quantifier, and a state quantifier.

9. Which of the following is a set of specially selected input patterns?

a) test pattern
b) debugger pattern
c) bit pattern
d) byte pattern

Answer: a

While testing any devices or embedded systems, we apply some selected inputs which is known as the test pattern, and observe the output. This output is compared with the expected output. The test patterns are normally applied to the already manufactured systems.

10. Which is applied to a manufactured system?

a) bit pattern
b) parity pattern
c) test pattern
d) byte pattern

Answer: c

For testing any devices or embedded systems, we use some sort of selected input which is known as the test pattern, and observe the output and is compared it with the expected output. These test patterns are normally applied to the manufactured systems.