# Embedded System Validation MCQ Quiz – Objective Question with Answer for Embedded System Validation

1. Which of the following is a set of specially selected input patterns?

a) test pattern
b) debugger pattern
c) bit pattern
d) byte pattern

While testing any devices or embedded systems, we apply some selected inputs which is known as the test pattern, and observe the output. This output is compared with the expected output. The test patterns are normally applied to the already manufactured systems.

2. Which is applied to a manufactured system?

a) bit pattern
b) parity pattern
c) test pattern
d) byte pattern

For testing any devices or embedded systems, we use some sort of selected input which is known as the test pattern, and observe the output and is compared it with the expected output. These test patterns are normally applied to the manufactured systems.

3. Which of the following is based on fault models?

a) alpha-numeric pattern
b) test pattern
c) bit pattern
d) parity pattern

The test pattern generation is normally based on the fault models and this model is also known as the stuck-at model. The test pattern is based on a certain assumption, that is why it is called the stuck-at model.

4. Which is also called the stuck-at model?

a) byte pattern
b) parity pattern
c) bit pattern
d) test pattern

The test pattern generation is based on the fault models and this type of model is also known as the stuck-at model. These test patterns are based on a certain assumption, hence it is known as the stuck-at model.

5. How is the quality of the test pattern evaluated?

a) fault coverage
b) test pattern
c) size of the test pattern
d) number of errors

The quality of the test pattern can be evaluated based on the fault coverage. It is the percentage of potential faults that can be found for a given test pattern set, that is fault coverage equals the number of detectable faults for a given test pattern set divided by the number of faults possible due to the fault model.

6. What is DfT?

a) discrete Fourier transform
b) discrete for transaction
c) design for testability
d) design Fourier transform

The design of testability or DfT is the process of designing for better testability.

7. Which of the following is also known as a boundary scan?

a) test pattern
b) JTAG
c) FSM
d) CRC

The JTAG is a technique for connecting scan chains of several chips and is also known as a boundary-scan.

8. What does BILBO stand for?

a) built-in logic block observer
b) bounded input bounded output
d) built-in local block observer

The BILBO or the built-in logic block observer is proposed as a circuit combining, test response compaction, test pattern generation, and serial input/output capabilities.

9. What is CRC?

a) code reducing check
b) counter reducing check
c) counting redundancy check
d) cyclic redundancy check

The CRC or the cyclic redundancy check is the error detecting code that is commonly used in the storage device and the digital networks.

10. What is FSM?

a) Fourier state machine
b) finite state machine
c) fast state machine
d) free state machine

The FSM is a finite state machine. It will be having a finite number of states and is used to design both the sequential logic circuit and the computer programs. It can be used for testing the scan design in the testing techniques.

11. Which of the following have flip-flops that are connected to form shift registers?

a) scan design
b) test pattern
c) bit pattern
d) CRC

All the flip-flop storing states are connected to form a shift register in the scan design. It is a kind of test path.

12. Which is a top-down method of analyzing risks?

a) FTA
b) FMEA
c) Hazards
d) Damages

The FTA is Fault tree analysis which is a top-down method of analyzing risks. It starts with damage and comes up with the reasons for the damage. The analysis is done graphically by using gates.

13. What is FTA?

a) free tree analysis
b) fault tree analysis
c) fault top analysis
d) free top analysis

The FTA is also known as the Fault tree analysis which is a top-down method of analyzing risks. The analysis starts with damage and comes up with the reasons for the damage. The analysis can be checked graphically by using gates.

14. Which gate is used in the geometrical representation, if a single event causes hazards?

a) AND
b) NOT
c) NAND
d) OR

The fault tree analysis is done graphically by using gates mainly AND gates and OR gates. The OR gate is used to represent a single event that is hazardous. Similarly, AND gates are used in the graphical representation if several events cause hazards.

15. Which analysis uses the graphical representation of hazards?

a) Power model
b) FTA
c) FMEA
d) First power model

The FTA is done graphically by using gates mainly AND gates and OR gates. The OR gate is used to represent a single event that is hazardous.

16. Which gate is used in the graphical representation, if several events cause a hazard?

a) OR
b) NOT
c) AND
d) NAND

The fault tree analysis is done graphically by using gates. The main gates used are AND gates and OR gates. The AND gates are used in the graphical representation if several events cause hazards.

17. What is FMEA?

a) fast mode and effect analysis
b) front mode and effect analysis
c) false mode and effect analysis
d) failure mode and effect analysis

The FMEA is the failure mode and the effect analysis, in which the analysis starts at the components and tries to estimate their reliability.

18. Which of the following can compute the exact number of clock cycles required to run an application?

a) layout model
b) coarse-grained model
c) fine-grained model
d) register-transaction model

The fine-grained model has the cycle-true instruction set simulation. In this modeling, it is possible to compute the exact number of clock cycles that are required to run an application.

19. Which model is capable of reflecting the bidirectional transfer of information?

a) switch-level model
b) gate level
c) layout model
d) circuit-level model

The switch model can be used in the simulation of the transistors since the transistor is the very basic component of a switch. It is capable of reflecting bidirectional transferring of the information.

20. What is meant by FOL?

a) free order logic
b) fast order logic
c) false order logic
d) first-order logic

Many formal verification techniques are used and these are classified based on the logic employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first-order logic, and higher-order logic. The FOL is the abbreviated form of the first-order logic which includes the quantification.

21. What is HOL?

a) higher-order logic
b) higher-order last
c) highly organized logic
d) higher-order less

The formal verification techniques are classified based on the logic employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first-order logic, and higher-order logic. The HOL is the abbreviation of the higher-order logic in which the proofs are automated and manually done with some proof support.

22. What is BDD?

a) boolean decision diagram
b) binary decision diagrams
c) binary decision device
d) binary device diagram

The binary decision diagram is a kind of data structure that is used to represent the Boolean function.

23. Which formal verification technique consists of a Boolean formula?

a) HOL
b) FOL
c) Propositional logic
d) Both HOL and FOL

The propositional logic technique is having the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in propositional logic are the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the binary decision diagrams which are also known as BDD.

24. Which of the following is also known as an equivalence checker?

a) BDD
b) FOL
c) Tautology checker
d) HOL

The propositional logic technique consists of the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in this type of logic are the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the BDD or the binary decision diagrams.

25. Which of the following is possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol?

a) EMC
b) HOL
c) BDD
d) FOL

The model checking was developed using the binary decision diagram and the BDD and it was possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol.

26. Which of the following is a popular system for model checking?

a) HOL
b) FOL
c) BDD
d) EMC

The EMC system is developed by Clark and it describes the CTL formulas, which is the computational tree logic.

27. What is CTL?

a) computational tree logic
b) code tree logic
c) CPU tree logic
d) computer tree logic