31. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), the chessboard distance between p and q is defined as:

A. D(p, q) = [(x – s)2 + (y – t)2]1/2

B. D(p, q) = |x – s| + |y – t|

C. D(p, q) = max (|x – s| + |y – t|)

D. None of the mentioned

32. The domain that refers to the image plane itself and the domain that refers to the Fourier transform of an image is/are :

A. Spatial domain in both

B. Frequency domain in both

C. Spatial domain and Frequency domain respectively

D. Frequency domain and Spatial domain respectively

33. What is the technique for a gray-level transformation function called, if the transformation would be to produce an image of higher contrast than the original by darkening the levels below some gray-level m and brightening the levels above m in the original image.

A. Contouring

B. Contrast stretching

C. Mask processing

D. Point processing

34. For Image Enhancement a general approach is to use a function of values of f (input image) in a predefined neighborhood of (x, y) to determine the value of g (output image) at (x, y). The techniques that use such approaches are called ________

A. Contouring

B. Contrast stretching

C. Mask processing

D. None of the mentioned

35. Using gray-level transformation, the basic function linearity deals with which of the following transformation?

A. log and inverse-log transformations

B. negative and identity transformations

C. nth and nth root transformations

D. All of Mentioned

36. Using gray-level transformation, the basic function Logarithmic deals with which of the following transformation?

A. Log and inverse-log transformations

B. Negative and identity transformations

C. nth and nth root transformations

D. All of Mentioned

37. Using gray-level transformation, the basic function power-law deals with which of the following transformation?

A. log and inverse-log transformations

B. negative and identity transformations

C. nth and nth root transformations

D. All of Mentioned

38. If r is the gray level of the image before processing and s after processing then which expression defines the negative transformation, for the gray level in the range [0, L-1]?

A. s = L – 1 – r

B. s = crᵞ, c, and ᵞ are positive constants

C. s = c log (1 + r), c is a constant and r ≥ 0

D. none of the mentioned

39. If r is the gray level of the image before processing and s after processing then which expression helps to obtain the negative of an image for the gray level in the range [0, L-1]?

A. s = L – 1 – r

B. s = crᵞ, c, and ᵞ are positive constants

C. s = c log (1 + r), c is a constant and r ≥ 0

D. none of the mentioned

40. If r is the gray level of the image before processing and s after processing then which expression defines the power-law transformation, for the gray level in the range [0, L-1]?

A. s = L – 1 – r

B. s = crᵞ, c, and ᵞ are positive constants

C. s = c log (1 + r), c is a constant and r ≥ 0

D. none of the mentioned