Which of the following is used for the measurement of the insulation resistance?
Right Answer is:
Testing of Insulation Resistance of Complete Installation to Earth
The principal purpose of testing the insulation is to verify that there are no inadvertent connections between live conductors and between live and Earth before the installation is energized. Tests are required between live conductors (e.g. between phases and between phase(s) and neutral) and between all live conductors and Earth.
Insulation resistance of the installation depends on many factors such as atmospheric conditions, humidity, dirt, etc. As such its calculation is not possible, but it can be readily measured. Normally the insulation resistance is quite high and can be measured by an instrument called “megger” usually used for the measurement of high resistance. The main object in performing this test is to ascertain whether the complete wiring is sound enough to avoid leakage current. As per the Indian electricity rules, the leakage current of installation should not exceed 1/5000 of the maximum supply-demand of the consumer. As such the insulation resistance of the complete installation to earth should not be less than 1 MΩ. Insulation resistance test must be conducted on dc voltage of value not less than twice the standard supply voltage. However, they need not exceed 500 V for medium voltage circuits.
Insulation resistance of the installation to earth is measured by a megger generating dc voltage of about 500 V. Insulation resistance is measured under the following conditions.
(i) Main switch in off position.
(ii) The main fuse to be taken out.
(iii) All other fuses to be provided.
(iv) All lamps must be put in the on position.
(v) All switches must be made on.
(vi) Live and neutral wire to be shorted together.
Testing of Insulation Resistance Between Conductors
After testing the insulation resistance of installation to earth, the insulation resistance between line and neutral should be measured. The major object in conducting this test is again to ensure that the insulation is quite sound between the conductors and there are no chances of any appreciable leakage current between them.
This test should be carried out under the following conditions of installation
(i) The Main switch is off.
(ii) The main fuse has withdrawn.
(iii) All other fuses in their position.
(iv) All switches in on position.
(v) All lamps from the holders were removed.
(vi)Two terminals of the meager are connected to the line and neutral wire.
Insulation resistance measured under the above condition by a megger should not be less than 50 MΩ divided by the number of outlets(points + switches). However, it need not be more than 1 MΩ.