1. Reduction in power dissipation can be brought by

A. increasing transistor area
B. decreasing transistor area
C. increasing transistor feature size
D. decreasing transistor feature size

Answer: A

The 3:1 reduction in power dissipation can be brought at the expense of increasing the transistor area by 50%.

2. When does the longest delay occur in 8:1 inverters?

A. during 1 to 0 transition
B. during 0 to 1 transition
C. during faster speed
D. delays are always short

Answer: B

In 8:1 inverters, the longest delay will occur when the output of the first stage is changing from logic 0 to 1 and capacitance must charge through pull-up resistance.

3. In inverter during logic 1 to 0 transition, capacitance discharges at

A. pull-up resistance
B. pull-down resistance
C. both pull-up and pull-down
D. at gate

Answer: B

During the logic 1 to 0 transition, the capacitance which is charged through pull-up must always discharge through the pull-down transistor at the first stage.

4. In minimum size nMOS 8:1 inverter, the logic 0 to 1 transition delay is given as

A. 5Ʈ
B. 20Ʈ
C. 40Ʈ
D. 50Ʈ

Answer: C

For minimum pull-down feature size nMOS 8:1 inverter, the logic 0 to 1 transition delay can be given as 8Rs × 5 square Cg which gives 40Ʈ.

5. In minimum size nMOS 8:1 inverter, the logic 1 to 0 transition delay is given as

A. 5Ʈ
B. 20Ʈ
C. 40Ʈ
D. 50Ʈ

Answer: A

8:1 nMOS inverter allows stray and wiring capacitance and the logic 1 to 0 transition delay can be given as 1Rs x 5 square Cg which gives 5Ʈ.

6. For a regular 8:1 inverter, the transition delay is given as

A. 10Ʈ
B. 20Ʈ
C. 21Ʈ
D. 25Ʈ

Answer: C

For the 8:1 inverter, the logic 0 to 1 transition delay can be given as 21Ʈ, and logic 1 to 0 transition delay can be given as 2(1/3)Ʈ.

7. The area of the CMOS inverter is proportional to

A. area of n device
B. area of p device
C. total area of n and p device
D. square of minimum feature size

Answer: C

The area of a basic CMOS inverter is proportional to the total area occupied by the p and n devices (WpLp + WnLn).

8. The ratio of Wp/Wn can be given as

A. 1:2
B. 2:1
C. 1:1
D. 2:2

Answer: C

The minimum area can be achieved by choosing minimum dimensions for Wp, Wn, Lp, Ln which is 2λ and the ratio of Wp/Wn can be given as 1:1.

9. Switching power dissipation can be given as

A. Cl × Vdd × f
B. Vdd2 × f
C. Cl × Vdd2
D. Cl × Vdd2 × f

Answer: D

Switching power dissipation Psd can be given as Cl x Vdd2 x f where Cl is load capacitance, Vdd is the power supply voltage and f is the frequency of switching.

10. Load capacitance can be minimized by

A. increasing A
B. decreasing A
C. increasing Psd
D. does not depend on A

Answer: B

For fixed Vdd and f, minimizing Psd requires minimizing Cl which can be minimized by decreasing area A as it is directly proportional to the gate area.