For nMOS inverters, the Zp.u./Zp.d. ratio is 4:1 when driven from another inverter and 8:1 when driven through one or more pass transistors.

2. The impedance ratio for pseudo-nMOS is

A. 4:1
B. 3:1
C. 1:4
D. 1:3

Answer: B

For pseudo-nMOS, the Zp.u./Zp.d. ratio is 3:1 and for CMOS 1:1 ratio is required for the minimum area.

3. What is the value of peripheral capacitance for 5-micron technology?

A. 4 × 10^{(-4)} pf/µm^{2}
B. 5 × 10^{(-4)} pf/µm^{2}
C. 8 × 10^{(-4)} pf/µm^{2}
D. 12 × 10^{(-4)} pf/µm^{2}

Answer: C

Peripheral capacitance is the sidewall capacitance. The peripheral capacitance of 5-micron technology is 8 × 10^{(-4)} pf/µm^{2}.

4. 1 square Cg is ___________ of MOS transistor.

A. gate to source capacitance
B. gate to drain capacitance
C. source to drain capacitance
D. gate to channel capacitance

Answer: D

1 square Cg is defined as the gate-to-channel capacitance of a MOS transistor having a standard feature size (W=L).

5. What is the delay value Ʈ for 1.2-micron technology?
A. 0.1 nsec
B. 0.12 nsec
C. 0.046 nsec
D. 0.064 nsec

Answer: C

The delay Ʈ is the time constant and for 1.2-micron technology its value is 0.046 nsec.

6. Which is used to increase Ʈ?

A. parasitic capacitance
B. peripheral capacitance
C. area capacitance
D. load capacitance

Answer: A

Circuit wiring and parasitic capacitance must be allowed to increase the value of Ʈ by the factor of 2 or 3.

7. The inverter pair delay is given by

A. (Zp.u./Zp.d.)Ʈ
B. (1+ Zp.u./Zp.d.)Ʈ
C. (1+ Zp.u./Zp.d.)Ʈ
D. (1+ Ʈ)Zp.u./Zp.d.

Answer: B

The inverter delay is given by (1+ Zp.u./Zp.d.)Ʈ. The inverter pair delay for CMOS is 7Ʈ.

8. The number of stages N is given by

A. ln(y)/ln(f)
B. ln(f)/ln(y)
C. ln(2y)/ln(f)
D. ln(y)/ln(2f)

Answer: A

To calculate the value for N, where N inverters are cascaded, each one of which is larger than the preceding stage by a width factor f the formula used is ln(y)/ln(f).

9. If f assumes the value e then delay is

A. maximized
B. minimized
C. does not change
D. doubled

Answer: B

Total delay is minimized if f assumes the value of e which is the base of the natural logarithm. This applies to both nMOS and CMOS.

10. Propagation delay is given by

A. nrcƮ
B. n2rcƮ
C. nr2cƮ
D. n2cƮ

Answer: B

Propagation delay through cascaded pass transistors or transmission gates can be given as n2rcƮ.